Here we mention the most important events, shifts, programmes and projects related to the video medium in the Slovene cultural space, as well as those decisive for the production and presentation of Slovene video art in the former Yugoslavia. The events most frequently took place in Ljubljana; unless otherwise stated, the event took place in Ljubljana.

Barbara Borčić & Igor Španjol

Belo mleko belih prsi/The White Milk of White Breasts, a static black-and-white shot with changing inscriptions, was the first video in Slovenia and Yugoslavia. At that time, the authors Nuša and Srečo Dragan were working within the OHO conceptual art movement and led the Information Centre for Film in Ljubljana.
In video's `pioneering' period in the early '70s, they considered and used video - which enabled the immediate screening of images and direct communication with the audience - as an element of their artistic meta-actions, or as a means of documenting. They worked with the Akai and Ikegami equipment, borrowed from the Avtotehna company (Open Reel 2''), or at international video events, such as CAYC: International Open Encounter on Video in Ferarra, Paris, and Barcelona.
The first experimental dance project for television - Odmevi/Echoes, by Majna Sevnik Firšt - was important primarily from the viewpoint of fine art interventions in the media, which continued in 1970 with the Pet impresij/Five Impressions project.

The first April Meetings of Extended Media (later Video Meetings) was held in the SKC Student Cultural Centre in Belgrade, curated by Biljana Tomić. Numerous foreign and Yugoslav video artists were presented in the following years; Nuša and Srečo Dragan took part regularly.
A book entitled Televizija danas/Television Today and edited by
Vera Horvat Pintarić was published in Zagreb, and included texts on the first video experiments.

A number of video artists, including Nuša and Srečo Dragan, created their (first) video works at the Trigon '73 (Audiovisualle Botschaften) exhibition in Graz. Nuša and Srečo Dragan founded the FAVIT Centre for Film, Audio and Video Research TV and VT, where they created projects until 1980. FAVIT was also a magazine made in collaboration with colleagues from Zagreb (its first editor was Vladimir Petek), Belgrade, Sarajevo and Novi Sad. It was released on micro-film and magnetic tape and viewed by means of slide projector. Beside others, Braco Dimitrijević and Joseph Beuys were among collaborators of the special international edition, realised for the Eight Yugoslav Artists exhibition in Richard Demarco Gallery in Edinburgh.
In Sinteza magazine, Stane Bernik defined video art as an experiment and as a creative experience of contemporary fine art expression. This marked the beginning of discussions about video as a new medium in texts.

Nuša and Srečo Dragan created their seven-day project of collective communication entitled Seven Nights and One Day to the Alpha-Theta Rhythm of the Oral Tradition, at the 3rd April Meetings in Belgrade. It started with an instruction: `This is a gesture which you must repeat and transmit our gesture to another who will repeat... .' Video was used to provoke the viewer's imagination and to neutralise the static and hermetic character of the conceptual statement. Part of the project was a round table attended by Bogdanka Poznanović (who would later become professor of video at the Academy of Fine Arts in Novi Sad), Braco Dimitrijević, Joseph Beuys and others.

The Video Heads group visited Ljubljana on its return from the April Meetings. It fascinated everyone with a van full of video technology, and with their works and a video version of the cult film Yellow Submarine by Richard Lester, which was screened for a group of Ljubljana artists in Tomaž Brejc and Taja Vidmar's apartment.

Miha Vipotnik was the first student on the postgraduate course in video art and television, and he argued for the establishment of a video department at the Academy of Fine Arts in Ljubljana. As the first Slovene video-maker he had the opportunity of working at the studios of TV Slovenia public television, where he designed the opening credits for different commercial and advertising programmes and editorials. He investigated the structure and aesthetic effects of the electronic image; he `discovered' the feedback effect and started to create video graphic works.
The first synthesis of video and theatre - the Šarada ali Darja/ Charades, or Daria by the Glej Theatre - included a video by Nuša and Srečo Dragan in two ways: as previously shot material presenting an actress in an open-air setting, and as real-time footage of the stage events, shot and screened during the performance.

Ekran magazine published a historical overview of tendencies in video, including a selected bibliography, edited by Brane Kovič.

Miha Vipotnik completed his two-year multi-media project for Slovene public television, entitled Videogram 4, which introduced the experimental video genre focused on the manipulation and transformation of the image and on editing. From material shot in a television studio, he made four videotapes for the Multivizija/Multi-vision video installation; the fifth, entitled Medijozonija/Media-sonia, was broadcast as an experimental programme on television. It began with information and a warning for viewers that `all disturbances and irregularities in the picture and sound form part of the programme, and therefore they should not try to adjust the picture on their TV sets'. In the years to follow he directed, as an external collaborator of Slovene public television, a number of programmes on culture and music, e.g. Jugorock/Yugo-rock and Nova godba/New Music, and made the first music video clips in Slovenia.
A screening of works by Miha Vipotnik, and a photo-documentation and screening of works by Nuša and Srečo Dragan, were organised at ŠKUC Student Cultural and Arts Centre (later ŠKUC Gallery) at Stari Trg 21, and a comprehensive catalogue with texts by the artists and Tomaž Brejc was also published for the occasion.
Bogdan Lešnik wrote in Ekran magazine about video technology and procedures, and about video as `a medium whose specific conditions place it in the sphere of art and thus deprive it of political alertness'.

The FV 112/15 group (later FV), working within the framework of ŠKD Forum Student Cultural Association, took over the organisation of the Student Disco programme on Tuesdays, naming it FV Disco. They borrowed disused portable video equipment (ADP - Automatic Data Processing) from the Faculty of Arts (department of psychology) and shot on waste computer tapes. They started to document concerts, projects and events at the FV Disco, which operated until 1985, first in the Student Village in Rožna Dolina, then in the Zgornja Šiška Youth Centre, and finally in the K4 Club.
Emil Memon shot an ambient video in the spirit of Warhol's films and the Velvet Underground's music. By means of a special procedure, he later transferred individual video shots onto canvases and presented his creations at an exhibition in the ŠKUC Gallery.
A seminar about film - and later also about video techniques - was organised by the Association of Cultural Organisations of Slovenia (ZKOS). The schedule comprised practical work, but also theoretical lectures and screenings. It was led by Peter Milovanovič Jarh.

In spring a video section was founded within ŠKD Forum. It engaged in the production, distribution and promotion of video art. In May it got its first VHS video equipment, a gift from the Unior factory in Zreče. Its founder and original head was Marijan Osole-Max, and his successors were Irma Mežnarič, Radmila Pavlović, Božo Zadravec, and Eva Rohrman. The FV Video group operated within the same organisation. It was led by Neven Korda and Zemira Alajbegović, with the collaboration of Dario Sereval, Goran Devidé (†), Anita Lopojda and others. The video equipment was used without interruption to document events and create the first art videos. The Dišalo je po pomladi/It smelt of Spring performance by the FV 112/15 group at the Spring Festival in Križanke was among the first performances to be shot on video.
In December the Sunday Video Club commenced operation at the FV Disco. The programme comprised music video, art video, computer animation and film, e.g. The Great Rock'n'Roll Swindle with the Sex Pistols and Ikone glamourja - odmevi smrti/Icons of Glamour - Echoes of Death by the Meje kontrole št. 4 group from Ljubljana (Barbara Borčić, Marina Gržinić, Dušan Mandić, and Aina Šmid).
A presentation of video works by Richard Krieshe took place in Cankarjev Dom, and the Media Provocation in the `80s exhibition of Yugoslav video art was organised by Nuša and Srečo Dragan in the ZDSLU (Association of Societies of Slovene Fine Artists) Gallery.

This year saw the beginning of extensive video production as part of the clubbing and multi-media activities of the `Ljubljana subcultural and alternative scene', related both to mass culture and constructive theoretical practice. In the `80s it went under the name of ŠKUC-Forum video production. The central sites for productive and presentational activities were the FV Disco (e.g. the presentation of The Kitchen from New York; video clips by Laurie Anderson, Public Image Limited and the like) and the ŠKUC Gallery (headed by Dušan Mandić, Marina Gržinić and Barbara Borčić). Countless art, documentary and music videos were made that criticised social and cultural policy, dealt with marginal and taboo themes, and disclosed the ideological mechanisms of the state and the aesthetical effects of various art practices.
VIDEO CD was the title of the international video biennial organised byCankarjev Dom; there were four such biennials in total. The very first event resulted in the introduction of video into Slovene institutions, enabled links with guest artists and curators, and stimulated the gradual assertion of Slovene video internationally. It presented foreign video art and television creations, and enabled production within a video workshop at a temporary video studio. Miha Vipotnik, the director of the festival, endeavoured - unsuccessfully - for several years to establish a permanent international video centre at Cankarjev Dom. The main attractions at the video workshop were the Australian artists Robert Randall and Frank Bendinelli, who created A Foreign Affair video in collaboration with students of the Ljubljana Academy of Fine Arts. This was the first acquaintance with the blue key procedure, the layering of background surfaces and actions, in Slovenia. They shot small collages rather than real settings, and these collages became settings for scenes acted out by actors in an entirely blue room. They also did two video installations in the ŠKUC Gallery, screened their videos, and talked about their work and the Australian video scene.
FV Video presented a spectacular media programme to an audience of several thousand at the Novi Rock/New Rock `83 festival in Križanke. The programme brought together mass entertainment and art through the use of new technologies: columns of TV sets were placed on the stage to `enhance' the stage events, and during breaks they screened music videos, art videos and real-time interviews with members of the bands. All shots were also screened on two large video screens with an independent PA system in the entrance court of Križanke. FV Video documented and produced similar programmes for other events (e.g., a symposium entitled What is Alternative?). And Marijan Osole-Max was in charge of the simultaneous screening of the Casus belli performance by Marko Kovačič on two monitors in the window of ŠKUC Gallery for numerous spectators on the street.
The Festival of Yugoslav Alternative Film and Video took place in the Belgrade Academic Film Centre; Slovene video production was also presented there.
In a text published in Viks, a ŠKUC-Forum bulletin, Dušan Mandić wrote about the new codes of signification, and highlighted the difference between the formalistic approach to video in the `70s and the mass dimensions and social engagement of the audio-visual video explorations of the `80s.

Marijan Osole-Max established Brut, a U-matic (low band) video-editing studio at Beethovnova Street. He had been a regular (co-)producer of video products throughout the `80.The Video Theatre Party was founded within the MKC Youth Cultural Club in Koper. In the years to follow it created, together with Radovan Čok and Lucian Kleva, several multi-media projects (Sprava/Reconciliation, Lipstick I and Lipstick II), which also included music video clips (e.g. Eksekutor/Executioner).
Video Bar started to operate on Sundays in Kapelica at 4 Kersnikova Street. Visitors could choose and pay for viewing their favourite videos, just as on a jukebox. In addition, London Video Arts and Soft Video from Italy, as well as video ambiences by the Kolaps and Autopsia groups, were also presented there.
The ŠKUC Gallery regularly documented all its projects (the footage was edited in art-documentary videos, entitled Back to the USA, Kaleidoscope, Umetniška video banka Galerije ŠKUC 83-88/ŠKUC Gallery Art Video Bank 83-88). It also started the Video-Box-Bar, which screened (initially on Saturdays) video tapes chosen by viewers (until 1985).
TV galerija/TV Gallery, a programme on visual art from RTV Belgrade, included video works by Yugoslav and foreign artists, and also enabled production. Some 60 editions of the programme, edited by Dunja Blažević, were made until 1990.
ŠKUC-Forum video production was presented in Sarajevo as part of the New Slovene Visual Scene exhibition. It was organised by Radmila Pavlović.
Brane Kovič edited a thematic supplement on video for Ekran magazine. In addition to a text by Dušan Mandić about ŠKUC-Forum video production, it was dedicated to the pioneer of video production, Nam June Paik.

The first video cassette by Borghesia, entitled Tako mladi/So Young, was issued by the FV Editions (led by Zemira Alajbegović, Neven Korda, Aldo Ivančić, Dario Sereval and, since 1988, Monika Skaberne). The second video cassette, Iskanje izgubljenega časa/In Search of Lost Time, was issued in the same year and presented at the ŠKUC Gallery.

Avtovizija/Auto-vision by Miha Vipotnik and Marijan Osole-Max was the first programme on art video made for RTV Ljubljana. Video-makers were invited to participate with one-minute videos of their choice.
Studio 37 was founded. It engaged in film and video production (initially U-matic, later Beta). It collaborated with Slovene film-makers and did production of its own. Its co-founder and artistic director was Jurij Korenc.
Numerous presentations of Yugoslav video art in European and American centres took place in the second half of the `80s. They were organised by Biljana Tomić, Bojana Pejić, Dunja Blažević, Miha Vipotnik and Kathy Rae Huffman, and also by Nuša and Srečo Dragan - e.g. La récente production Vidéo en Yougoslavie; Video match France-Yougoslavie in the Loža Gallery in Koper and the Yugoslav Cultural Centre in Paris.
A presentation of ŠKUC-Forum video production at the Art - Criticism in the Mid-Eighties exhibition at the Collegium Artisticum in Sarajevo was organised by Marina Gržinić.
The joint issue of Ekran and Sinteza published the hitherto largest number of texts by domestic and foreign authors about video art, its history and relationship with television and design.
Videosfera/Video-sphere, an anthology of theoretical texts about video, including contributions from video-makers, was edited by Mihajlo Ristić and published in Belgrade.

A promotional programme was shot in the Brut Studio as a model for the future programme scheme of the independent Authorial, or Alternative Television (ATV). The programme was also meant to include the development of video. ATV was supposed to be the only television station besides Slovene public television. It was devised and led - in co-operation with the Union of Socialist Youth of Slovenia, represented by Mojmir Ocvirk - by Bogdan Lešnik, Marijan Osole-Max, Zemira Alajbegović and Irma Mežnarič.
A round table, entitled The Pluralism of Electronic Media for a Pluralistic Society, was organised in connection with the initiative to found ATV at the Novi Rock festival. The participants - Bogdan Lešnik, Rastko Močnik, Melita Zajc, Lev Kreft, Andrej Škerlep, Darinka Pek, Mojmir Ocvirk, Bogdana Herman and Tadej Zupančič - spoke about the situation in the mass media and investigative journalism.
FV Video organised the Videogledalnica/Video Watching Room in Kapelica at Kersnikova 4. It was devised as an ATV club - a regular two-hour programme of mainly music videos, screened by means of a video projector.
In February the Ljubljana Academy of Fine Arts introduced a video course (first within the design department and later as an independent subject of study). Miha Vipotnik helped draw up the course, followed by Srečo Dragan (who is still head there).
A new generation of video-makers began to emerge. They considered video technology to be an integral segment of art practices, leading to the realisation of contemporary art works. The former antagonistic relationship to the medium and its institutions (television) and other ideological apparatuses of the state was gradually vanishing.
Video Meetings '87 - the Museum of the XIVth Winter Olympic Games, in co-operation with RTV Sarajevo, the best equipped studio in Yugoslavia at that time - enabled numerous artists to realise their works.
Video-mix 001, the first Yugoslav music video festival in Zagreb, also presented art videos and international rock videos and films.
Two Slovene video clips won awards: Borghesia: Venceremos and Videosex: Zemlja pleše/The Dancing Earth, made by Neven Korda and Marijan Osole-Max.
There were presentations of Slovene video production at the Yugoslav Documenta 87 exhibition in Sarajevo, curated by Marina Gržinić, and in Recent Slovene Video Production at the Air Gallery in London, curated by Nuša and Srečo Dragan.

Brut and FV Editions issued video cassettes under the common title of NEO VIDEO: ŠKUC R.O.P.O.T., Good Morning America, and MAX.
A round table, entitled A Fight for Media - ATV and Radio Student East of Freedom, was organised in the ŠKUC Gallery; it included a presentation of the ATV programme and NEO VIDEO editions.
The Film Video Monitor festival was organised by Kino Atelje in Gorizia. Since then it has annually presented film and video production in Slovenia. The third festival was dedicated to the presentation of the ATV project, Retrovizija and art video. It was curated by Nuša and Srečo Dragan.

The Information Centre of the Museum of Modern Art (ICMG) began to work in the museum basement. It organised lectures, round tables and symposia, and engaged in video and new media activities. It was headed by Marjeta Marinčič. It went on to present national video productions (Germany, Canada, Catalonia, Great Britain, Croatia, Russia), selections from international festivals and video collections (Ostranenie, London Video Access, Monte Video TBA, MoMA from New York), and artists such as Bill Viola and Henry Bond.
The Ohrid 89 international video colony was held in Macedonia. It enabled the production of video works in co-operation with RTV Skopje. Theorists, producers and video artists participated in the event, including Nuša Dragan, Srečo Dragan, and Marina Gržinić and Aina Šmid.
The Deconstruction, Quotation & Subversion: Video from Yugoslavia programme was organised and curated by Kathy Rae Huffman. It was presented at the Artists' Space in New York and the ICA in Boston.
The Video in Slovenia programme was presented at the 17th Week of Domestic Film in Celje and Alpe Adria Cinema event in Trieste. The last VIDEO CD 89 international video biennial, organised by Marina Gržinić, was held in Cankarjev Dom.

The invitation to tender issued by the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Slovenia included video for the first time. The Ministry thus became a regular co-financier of art videos in Slovenia. In the `70s and 80s, video production had been part of the fine art programme, and it was only at the end of the `80s that it became part of the film programme. The then Cultural Committee of Slovenia distributed film subsidies through the state-owned Viba studios, including subsidies for the so-called enrichment of television programmes.

Authorship became the most significant feature of video production: minutely devised scenarios, shooting scripts, and professional actors and dancers forming the cast. Post-production was becoming more complex and decisive. Amateur equipment was nearly forgotten and video-makers worked chiefly in professional video studios (e.g. Kregar Video Production), collaborated with Slovene public television, and regularly participated in international video festivals (The Hague, Berlin, Osnabrück, Wroclaw, Bonn, and Montreal). VHS and U-matic formats had gradually given way to Beta (or Betacam SP) format. Video featured frequently as an element and means of expression within multi-media projects, installations and (dance) performances.
Ljubljana Dance Theatre started the Video Film Dance Festival in Cankarjev Dom, which presented international video dance production. It was led by Cis Bierinckx until 1993, and by Koen van Daele until its last appearance in 1996.
The Center za dehumanizacijo/The Centre for Dehumanisation 1985-91 video cassette and the Nestrpnost/Intolerance video film by Zemira Alajbegović and Neven Korda were presented in the ŠKUC Gallery.

The Piazzeta Ljubljana (Neurope to Europe) interactive television programme, part of the Van Gogh TV project, entitled Piazza virtuale, at the international Documenta IX exhibition, linked Ljubljana and Kassel. It involved a number of artists (Lidija Bernik, Marko Kovačič, Ema Kugler, Franc Purg, Bojan Štokelj, and the Ana Monro Theatre), theorists and actors (Damjan Bojadžijev, Jelena Lovrič, Silva Mežnarič, Radko Polič, Gorazd Suhadolnik, Rade Šerbedžija, and Slavoj Žižek). By means of image and voice transmission (telephone and picture phone) from the KUD France Prešeren Cultural and Arts Centre and Radio Student, the protagonists were transferred to the improvised studio in Kassel, where the viewers could intervene in the programme, which was consequently transmitted back - via the 3SAT satellite programme and the Kanal A programme in Ljubljana - to the starting point in KUD France Prešeren. The event was organised by Marko Košnik.
The Podoba/Image serial television programme by Zemira Alajbegović and Neven Korda started life at Kanal A. This was the most important television presentation of art video production in the `80s in Slovenia (five programmes up to 1993).
At the premiere of his video No More Heroes Any More at the Mladinsko Theatre, Marko Kovačič made seven installations and staged, together with collaborators, a performance with the same title. He enacted live the elements that essentially defined the video: designed settings, mechanical figurines and the performance by the main protagonists.
Matjaž Mrak and Mirko Simić, with collaborators from the KUD Naprej Cultural and Arts Centre, organised the Slovene Video Festival in Idrija, which presented 39 documentary, sports, dance, art and feature videos by 28 video-makers. In the following years, KUD Naprej also (co-)produced videos by authors from the Idrija and Cerklje regions.
The Slovene Video exhibition was held in the ZDSLU Gallery as part of the 17th ICSID `92 international biennial, presenting a selection of the most recent productions, more distant works and student videos. It was curated by Srečo Dragan.

Marko Košnik made the first interactive sound-video installation, entitled Figura v prostoru, človek v zaboju / Figure in Space, Man in the Case, in the Škuc Gallery. The whole system (including infra-red security cameras, an image digitiser with a video buffer, and a video projector) continuously reacted to the visitors - both visually and in the auditory response of resonant plates. It was controlled by the author, who was enclosed in the case together with the equipment and responded to the visitor's reactions by editing the video transmission and shaping the sound according to his/her movements. The case also featured as an exhibit.
A video section began to operate within the MKC Youth Cultural Centre in Maribor under the leadership of Jože Slaček. It presented videos and produced primarily animated and documentary videos. In 1993 and 1994 there were regular evenings of video screenings, lectures and discussions with video-makers. They presented a wide range of works, from their own production, products from FV Editions and renowned Slovene video artists, to Art in Video programmes, selections of videos about painters and sculptors, Eastern European Video, Ostranenie 93 and From the Alternative Scene to Art Video.
Following unfruitful negotiations with the city authorities and the demolition of buildings at the former Metelkova barracks, which were meant to make up a socio-cultural centre, the members of the Mreža za Metelkovo/Network for Metelkova association squatted the premises. Mirko Simić documented the occupation and the manifold events - including a series of video screenings - that took place in the months that followed (e.g. video programme as part of the Anti-Nazi multi-media event at the Channel Zero Club).
Martin Lucas presented a public-access television programme made by Paper Tiger TV from New York in the Škuc Gallery. Paper Tiger TV made programmes by combining various amateurish shots from viewers across the U.S. on a certain subject with official television reports on the same theme, thus raising questions about public opinion and the institution of power.
The first Ostranenie international video festival took place in Bauhaus, Dessau, focused on media production in the former Eastern Bloc. The three editions of the festival (until 1997) also presented a number of works by Slovene video makers.

Marko Peljhan and a number of collaborators staged his computer video LADOMIR-FAKTYPA: First Surface - Microlab in Cankarjev Dom. The video was produced in real time on a computer: images were simultaneously calculated according to a pre-devised programme by Luka Frelih and Alfred Anžlovar.
The Pekarna Multi-cultural Centre opened in Maribor, presenting multi-media projects and video screenings (e.g. a video by Klon Art group at the Hiša Gallery in 1998).
The Slovene Film Fund was established within the Ministry of Culture, with the purpose of financially supporting the domestic film industry (the production, distribution and promotion of films and video works).
Sokolski Dom Productions, a society of film, audio and video culture enthusiasts, was founded in Ilirska Bistrica. They later pooled their own financial resources to equip a S-VHS video studio, organised courses in video shooting and editing, produced video films, and organised video screenings at different events.
V očesu videa / In the Eye of Video, a series of video programmes, was screened at the Trnfest open-air festival at KUD France Prešeren. Video became an important part of successive editions of the festival.
The Soros Center for Contemporary Arts-Ljubljana (SCCA-Ljubljana) and Škuc Gallery prepared a programme From the Alternative Scene to Art Video. Video Production in Slovenia 1992-1994, which was presented in several East European cities, Udine and Los Angeles. It was made by Zemira Alajbegović, Barbara Borčić and Eva Rohrman.
A Past Memorised - A Future Conceived: Video from Slovenia programme visited many European and American cities. It was curated by Kathy Rae Huffman.
The SCCA-Ljubljana initiated the Videodokument research work for the collection and arrangement of archives and documentation on video production in Slovenia.

Ljudmila (Ljubljana Digital Media Laboratory) began to operate in KUD France Prešeren as an Open Society Institute-Slovenia programme, headed by Mitja Doma. It started the first Cyber-café in Eastern Europe. It offered ISP services to its users, and a number of web-sites for NGOs, societies, groups and artists have
been published on its server since then. The New Media Production and Organisation Unit (Vuk Ćosić, Luka Frelih, Marko Peljhan and others) developed departments for Web and multi-media production, digital video and radio, and three-dimensional and computer animation.
The first International Festival of Computer Arts was organised in Maribor, presenting new media arts and technologies, including video.
The ŠOU Kapelica Gallery, headed by Jurij Krpan, began to include video presentations in its programme. The first presentation was SPIN by Brian Springer and New American Video Production, followed by the End of the Message - Archives Live! radio-video ambience by Darko Fritz (1996); Reference to Difference, recent video production and computer animation by the younger generation from Croatia (1996); and War Generation, video production by the younger generations from Sarajevo (1997), among others.

The Kibla Multi-media Centre opened in July in Maribor, headed by Peter Tomaž Dobrila. It has operated according to the principle of the emancipation of the media; new technologies - including video - have been an important segment of the programme. It has presented a number of Slovene video-makers and multi-media projects, a video performance by Mirko Simić (1997), a video evening by MKC Maribor (1997), and the War Generation.
The 1st Independent Slovene Film and Video Festival was organised by KUD Cineast under the auspices of ZKOS. Public invitations have been issued every year in four different categories: documentaries, feature films, experimental films and animated films. Some forty proposals for films and videos have been submitted each year.
Likovni Salon Celje organised monthly video evenings, entitled Cybersalon Aquarium. The programme was curated by Irena Čerčnik, and it presented video works by Marina Gržinić and Aina Šmid, Marko Košnik, Mirko Simić, Marko Kovačič, Ema Kugler, Zemira Alajbegović and Neven Korda, Jasna Hribernik, Marko Peljhan and Nataša Prosenc.
The City of Women international festival of contemporary arts (which began in 1995) presented a videotheque with a selection of the most recent art films and videos by women artists, including works by Cindy Sherman and Jo Ann Kaplan, documentaries on avant-garde artists and videos from the ICA in London, and No Alternative Girls programmes.
The 5th Video Film Dance Festival took place at the Slovene Cinematheque hall, which also gave space for the Forum Ljubljana video programme, screened as part of the Student Cultural Days.

Comma, a video studio open to the public, was founded by the Open Society Institute-Slovenia and headed by Amra Bakšić. It has offered a technical service and financial help for video productions; for example, the China installation by Marko A. Kovačič; Mannequins by Marija Mojca Pungerčar; Bonnevoie? Juice Bar by Apolonija Šušteršič; and the Banquet theatre production by Emil Hrvatin. It has operated in conjunction with Ljudmila in the premises at 74 Prušnikova Street in Šentvid. They also prepared the Beauty and the East international net.time conference, and presentations of the net.artists Alexij Šulgin, Olia Lialina, Etoy, Jodi, Heath Bunting, and Kendall Gears.
Kregar Video Production installed the most advanced video equipment (a robotised Digital Beta camera, Panasonic D5/D3, a Silicon Graphics station) and thus enabled 3D production of animation and virtual reality.
The Media in Media international exhibition, organised by SCCA-Ljubljana, reserved an important position for video as a means of artistic expression. It presented a range of historical and topical works, all reflecting on mass media through formally manifold artistic media. The exhibition was curated by Vanesa Cvahte.
The Wise Hand exhibition by the ZDSLU in the Rihard Jakopič Gallery included contemporary (video) installations, but also featured a retrospective screening of Slovene video works from the `80s, selected by Judita Krivec Dragan and Nadja Zgonik.
The Videospotting programme, part of the European Cultural Month at the Metropol Club, presented six one-hour programmes: Bodyspotting, Creatures, Docu-art, Intolerance, Dance-mania, and Memories, curated by Barbara Borčić and Nerina Kocjančič. Since then, the programme was screened at the Interstanding international conference in Tallinn and the European Film and Video Avant-gardes event at Balász Béla Studió in Budapest.
After its presentation in Slovene Cinematheque, the programme In Search of the Lost Time - 15 Years of Forum Video Production, edited by Eva Rohrman, travelled to numerous towns in Slovenia.
The City of Women festival featured the Not Only One Day of Slovene Women's Film and Video programme at Slovene Cinematheque, dedicated to the production since 1991. The programme was curated by Maja Weiss. A further two premiere screenings took place there: Staro in novo/The Old and the New, a full-length video film by Zemira Alajbegović and Neven Korda, which employs documentary material to present the personal views of the authors, who were figures on the alternative scene in the `80s; and the Vrtoglavi ptič/Vertigo Bird video dance by Sašo Podgoršek and the En Knap dance group.
The 6th Slovene Film Marathon in Portorož bestowed awards on the art videos Tajga / Taiga by Ema Kugler and Ballabende by Jasna Hribernik, while the Grand Award was conferred on Vertigo Bird (filmed on celluloid).
Peter Weibel curated the 2nd U3 - triennial of Slovene art. He exposed art practices using new media and technologies, which also expressed artists' relationships to video tradition. Maja Licul and Nika Špan, for example, prepared video projects about their communication with the curator.
A cycle of evenings, entitled Video Shaft and presenting Slovene video-makers, was organised in the Škuc Gallery, KIC in Idrija and Kibla Multi-media Centre in Maribor. It was organised by Matjaž Mrak and Marko Simić.
The Škuc Club prepared a number of video screenings in the Škuc Gallery, including works by Thomas Bayrle, Anne Farrel, Igor Kuduz, Vladislav Knezević, Simon Bogojević Narath, and Aleksander Jankovič.
The premiere screening of Nesreča enega kmeta / An Accident of a Farmer, a video film by the Grejpfrut group, took place at the KUD France Prešeren.
Mirko Simić and a number of collaborators staged the Parabola video project at the Ambasada Gavioli disco club in Izola. The eight-hour spectacle included simultaneous real-time music an video mixing by DJs and VJs. Later that year, the Parabola project visited several clubs in Slovenia (Klub Metropol, Ljubljana; Planet Life, Domžale; Kibla, Maribor).

The Strip Core group organised a video screening in the K4 Club on the occasion of the publication of the 20th edition of Stripburger, the only magazine for comics in Slovenia. They presented videos by the authors of comics (e.g. the Le dernier cri group, Marcel de Jure, etc.) and a documentary about the comics Hooked on Comics. The extended version of the programme, including video works by Rok Sieberer - Kuri, travelled to different clubs around Slovenia (e.g. Pivka Student Club, Velenje Youth Centre and Pekarna Maribor). The Kibla Multi-media Centre organised screenings of video works by Sluik and Kloosterdijk on the occasion of the Cartographers exhibition and a video about the visits of Kibla members to different European media centres, made by Aleksandra Kostič.
The Film on Thursdays programme ran in the Škuc Gallery. It was organised by the KUD Pirati.
The Cinema-Ear cycle at Slovene Cinémathque presented two video-collages (with the use of gramophones, CD and sampler): Alpha, based on Jean-Luc Godard's Alphaville, and A Journey to the West (His-Yu Chi) by David Shea, dedicated to Hong Kong film makers; and The Artificial Eye, a project by Zeena Parkins (live music) and Janena Higgins (live video mix).
A programme of Slovene video works, selected by Marina Gržinić, was screened at Avant-garde Films and Videos from Central Europe programme at the Festival of Central European Culture in London.